• Less than one-quarter of those who had experienced road traffic crash used the emergency response service. Males and those with higher education had higher awareness of emergency response service.
What is known and what is new?
• Road traffic crashes have been a longstanding problem in Nigeria, contributing significantly to mortality and morbidity, and responsive emergency services has been identified as a vital component in reducing deaths from road traffic crashes.
• The utilization rate of emergency response services in our study was low due to lack of awareness of emergency response services and by extension, lack of contact information and delay in response time.
What is the implication, and what should change now?
• There is a need for government and agencies to conduct routine awareness programs towards increasing awareness of the public on emergency response services and strengthen the quality of services being provided by the emergency response bodies/agencies.
Globally, road traffic crashes are a major threat to public safety and health. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2018, road traffic crash claims over 1.3 million lives each year (1), causing disabilities and injuries in about 50 million people across all age groups and genders per year (2-5). Furthermore, road traffic crashes are the leading cause of death of people between the ages of 5–29 years old and the eighth leading cause of death across all age groups (1,6-8). It is predicted that by 2030, road traffic crashes will become the seventh leading cause of death globally (9).
The overall global road traffic fatality rate is 18 per 100,000 population (10), and according to the WHO, road traffic injuries are three times higher in middle-income countries (1,11). While the yearly number of road deaths in Africa, alongside other underlying challenges, is the highest in the world (27 per 100,000 people) (1,12), it is noteworthy that estimates of the magnitude of road traffic injuries in low-income countries are grossly under-reported due to poor data management systems (2,4,13). Nigeria has been consistently ranked as one of the countries in Africa with the highest incidence of road traffic crashes (5,14). According to a study published in 2017, in Nigeria, an average of 17 road traffic crashes are recorded daily, further exacerbating the already elevated rates of morbidity and mortality from various causes (15). Additionally, road traffic crashes cause considerable societal well-being and socioeconomic economic losses especially in developing countries as a result of morbidity, mortality, and property-related costs (6).
Over the years, emergency response service has been established as a vital service to reducing and recusing crash victims in Nigeria (16). The first emergency medical service (EMS) system began in the early 2000s in Nigeria (17). However, there has been a huge gap in the consistency in the operation of the service and nationwide policy (18). Additionally, research has shown persistent poor management of road traffic crash victims due to poor attention to emergency response in Nigeria (19). This is evident by the lack of knowledge of triage measures and first aid guidelines for victims of road traffic crashes at the scene which often leads to poor prehospital response (16). In the same vein, there is variability in research conducted on the response duration of emergency services in different parts of the country. A study conducted in Niger Delta showed an ideal response time of about 10–30 minutes after a crash had occurred and paramedics effectively transported patients in ambulances to appropriate referral hospitals for definitive treatment (20). Another study conducted in 6 states (Kwara, Kogi, Oyo, Osun, Ekiti, and Niger States) in Nigeria showed that the majority of victims arrive at the hospitals late (mostly within 1 hour of injury) (21). Furthermore, there is limited knowledge of the preparedness for emergency response of the public and the utilization of the emergency response system in Nigeria. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the awareness and utilization of emergency response services to road traffic crashes among the Nigerian populace. Findings from this study form a baseline upon which policies and interventions can be implemented to improve the emergency response to the number of road traffic injuries in Nigeria and also for future referencing. We presented this article in accordance with the STROBE reporting checklist (available at https://jphe.amegroups.com/article/view/10.21037/jphe-23-31/rc).
This study was conducted in Nigeria between July 2022 to March 2023.
The study was a descriptive web-based cross-sectional study.
The study population of this research was residents in Nigeria who were above 18 years of age.
Sample size estimation and sampling technique
Based on Cochran’s formula for the calculation of sample size for single proportions,
z is the standard normal deviate at a 95% confidence interval (CI) which is 1.96;
1 − p is the complementary probability;
e is for precision allowing an error of 5%;
p is the proportion from a previous study relative to the objectives of our study; 35.3% (14);
N is the population size.
The calculated minimum sample size was 386 with 10% for attrition and cross-tabulation. Convenience sampling (a non-probability sampling technique) was used for this study to allow easy access to the population (those who are above 18 years and have access to the internet) to be part of the sample.
Instrument and data collection process
A self-administered questionnaire was adapted from previous studies (2,22). The questionnaire comprises four sections: A, B, C, and D: section A is on the demographics of the respondents, section B focused on awareness of emergency response services, section C focused on utilization of emergency response services, and section D focused on the experience of road traffic crash response. The research instrument was designed in English language. A total of 20 respondents pre-tested the questionnaire to address the validity and any form of ambiguity in the questionnaire. The pilot exercise was restricted to those within close networks, i.e., friends and families of the authors and cut across different study populations (students, medical professionals, and non-medical professionals among others). The questionnaire was set up via Google Forms and the access link was shared via online platforms including Facebook and WhatsApp, by all authors. Each author shared the link within 10 individual WhatsApp groups and their Facebook stories. Also, in a bid to reach a greater and more diverse audience, authors subscribed to paid advertisements on Facebook and Email for the data collection process. The link to the survey was shared between October 1st, 2022 till January 29th, 2023. The inclusion criteria for respondents include those more than 18 years old, and an understanding of the English language due to the nature of the web-based study.
Questionnaires were sorted to check for errors and omissions at the end of the collection of data and appropriate corrections were made. Thereafter, data were extracted from the survey tool into an Excel spreadsheet and exported for analysis using Stata version 17.0. Univariate analysis was done by using frequency tables for bio-data, awareness, and utilization of response services. Bivariate analysis was done via Chi-square to find the association between socio-demographic characteristics and awareness of emergency response services. Multivariate analysis was done through binary logistics regression to identify determinants of awareness of emergency response services.
This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (as revised in 2013). Ethical clearance was gotten from the Ekiti State Ministry of Health Research Ethics Committee with approval number MOH/EKHREC/EA/P/42 prior to the data collection exercise. Additionally, participants’ consent was sought through a pre-filled form and they were assured of strict anonymity as their names or addresses were not collected nor extracted prior to the data collection. Also, they were assured of confidentiality as the data would only be used for research purposes.
Table 1 describes the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents that participated in the survey. More than half of the 445 respondents, 239 (53.7%) are young adults between the ages of 25–35 years. The female-to-male ratio was nearly 1:1 (female 50.8%, male 49.2%), the majority of whom were single, 287 (64.5%). More than 9 in 10 respondents reported having attained tertiary education. A fifth of the respondents 93 (20.9%) are in the medical profession while the other 79.1% are in non-medical professions, unemployed, or students. A significant percentage 428 (96.2%) of the respondents reside in urban or suburban parts of Nigeria (Table 1).
|Variables||Frequency (n=445)||Percentage (%)|
|Age group (year)|
|Mean ± SD||32±10.31|
|Young adults [25–35]||239||53.7|
|Middle aged group [36–64]||114||25.6|
|Old aged (≥65)||9||2.0|
|Highest level of education|
|Medical professionals (doctor, nurse, etc.)||93||20.9|
|Non-medical professional (bankers, lawyers, etc.)||147||33.0|
|Artisan (tailor, barber, hairdresser, etc.)||13||2.9|
|Description of residence|
SD, standard deviation; Min, minimum; Max, maximum.
Of all the survey respondents, 183 (41.1%) indicated awareness of medical emergency response services in Nigeria, compared to 262 (58.9%) who were not aware of any services. When asked to specify which service providers they were aware of, over half of respondents mentioned government agencies—State (Sub-national) Emergency Management Agencies 66 (36.1%), National Emergency Management Agency 26 (14.2%), and Security Agencies 14 (7.7%), while 77 (42.1%) of respondents mentioned other private not-for-profit and for-profit stakeholders such as Red Cross and Emergency Response Africa. Among those who responded to being aware of an emergency response service in Nigeria, less than half 91 (49.7%) responded ‘Yes’ to have the contact details of the service providers, while 92 (50.3%) did not have the contact information. In an effort to assess preparedness to act in an emergency, all survey respondents were asked whether they had received formal medical emergency response training. Only 162 (36.4%) of the respondents indicated that they had received formal training, of which 103 (63.6%) had taken the training less than 2 years ago. When asked about existing payment plans to address medical emergencies, 111 (24.9%) of all respondents confirmed having insurance as their primary payment plan, while 76 (17.1%) and 10 (2.2%) expected to rely on bank savings and group contributions respectively. However, 248 (55.7%) indicated that they had no payment plan for medical emergencies (Table 2).
|Variables||Frequency (n=445)||Percentage (%)|
|Awareness of any medical emergency response services in Nigeria|
|If yes, which medical emergency response services (n=183)|
|State Emergency Management||66||36.1|
|Emergency Response Africa||42||23.0|
|National Emergency Management Agency||26||14.2|
|If you are aware of the emergency response services in Nigeria, do you have their contact/shortcode details (n=183)|
|Formal training on medical emergency response|
|If you have received formal emergency response training, how long ago was your training? (n=162)|
|Less than 2 years ago||103||63.6|
|More than 2 years ago||59||36.4|
|Major payment plan for medical emergencies|
|I don’t have||248||55.7|
In Table 3, 319 (71.7%) of the respondents had either witnessed or been involved in road traffic crashes. Of those who have either been involved in or witnessed a road traffic crash, only 70 (21.9%) used any medical emergency response service. The prominent reasons for not using the emergency response service range from those that are not aware of any emergency response service 106 (42.6%), followed by those who do not have the contact details of the service providers 53 (21.3%), and delay in response by the service providers 35 (14.1%) (Table 3).
|Variables||Frequency (n=445)||Percentage (%)|
|Have you been involved in or witnessed a road traffic accident?|
|If yes, how long was the accident (n=319)|
|Less than 2 years||170||53.3|
|More than 5 years||77||24.1|
|Did you or anyone make use of a medical emergency response service? (n=319)|
|If no to above, explain why you didn’t use the emergency response service? (n=249)|
|No awareness of any emergency response service||106||42.6|
|Don’t have their contact||53||21.3|
|Not readily available/delay in responding||35||14.1|
|Help of passer-by/nearness to hospital||33||13.3|
|If you used an emergency response service, how long did they take to arrive at the accident scene? (n=70)|
|Less than 30 minutes||18||25.7|
|Over 120 minutes||11||15.7|
|I don’t know||16||22.9|
|How likely are you to recommend the emergency response service to others? (n=70)|
Table 4 shows the relationship between awareness of emergency response and the socio-demographics of all respondents. Age group, sex, marital status, and the highest level of education were all associated with awareness of emergency response as they all showed statistically significant differences. With age group, 5 (55.6%) of old-aged (65 years and above) respondents were aware of emergency response services compared to their counterparts who are youths (18–24 years), young adults (25–35 years) and middle-aged group (36–64 years) (P<0.001). In terms of sex, more males, 105 (46.5%) were aware of emergency response services compared to only 78 (35.6%) of females (P=0.020). Regarding marital status, 84 (57.1%) of those who were married are aware of emergency response services compared to their counterparts who are either single, divorced/separated, or widowed (P<0.001). Concerning the level of education, 174 (42.5%) of those who have tertiary education were aware of emergency response services, compared to their counterparts who have primary or secondary education (P=0.038) (Table 4).
|Variables||Sub-variables||Awareness of emergency
response services in Nigeria
|Yes (%), n=183||No (%), n=262|
|Age-group||Youths (18–24 years)||21 (25.3)||62 (74.7)||χ2=19.087; P<0.001*|
|Young adults (25–35 years)||94 (39.3)||145 (60.7)|
|Middle aged group (36–64 years)||63 (55.3)||51 (44.7)|
|Old aged (65 and above)||5 (55.6)||4 (44.4)|
|Sex||Male||105 (46.5)||121 (53.5)||χ2=5.402; P=0.020*|
|Female||78 (35.6)||141 (64.4)|
|Marital status||Single||94 (32.8)||193 (67.2)||χ2=24.112#; P<0.001*|
|Married||84 (57.1)||63 (42.9)|
|Divorced/separated||4 (50.0)||4 (50.0)|
|Widowed||1 (33.3)||2 (66.7)|
|Religion||Christianity||162 (39.8)||245 (60.2)||χ2=5.049#; P=0.168|
|Islam||20 (57.1)||15 (42.9)|
|Atheist||0 (0.0)||1 (100.0)|
|None||1 (50.0)||1 (50.0)|
|Highest level of education||Primary education||2 (66.7)||1 (33.3)||χ2=6.552; P=0.038*|
|Secondary education||7 (21.2)||26 (78.8)|
|Tertiary education||174 (42.5)||235 (57.5)|
|Medical professionals (doctor, nurse, etc.)||53 (57.0)||40 (43.0)||χ2=18.102; P=0.060|
|Non-medical professional (bankers, lawyers, etc.)||62 (42.2)||85 (57.8)|
|Business man/woman||19 (28.4)||48 (71.6)|
|Artisan (tailor, barber, hairdresser, etc.)||3 (23.1)||10 (76.9)|
|Student||27 (33.3)||54 (66.7)|
|Unemployed||13 (43.3)||17 (56.7)|
|Others||6 (42.9)||8 (57.1)|
|Description of residence||Urban||127 (42.3)||173 (57.7)||χ2=0.608; P=0.738|
|Semi-urban||49 (38.3)||79 (61.7)|
|Rural||7 (41.2)||10 (58.8)|
*, statistically significant at P<0.05; #, Likelihood ratio used instead of Pearson’s because at least one cell has an unexpected value less than five.
In the model for all respondents, females are approximately two times less likely aware of emergency response services than males [P=0.025, odd ratio (OR) =0.626] 95% CI: (0.416–0.942). Likewise, those who have low education (i.e., primary and secondary) are three times less likely aware of emergency response services than those with Tertiary education (P=0.035, OR =0.377, 95% CI: 0.152–0.935) (Table 5).
|Variables||Sub-variables||P value||Odds ratio||95% confidence interval|
|Age-group||Old aged (reference)||0.724||0.754||0.156–3.631|
|Marital status||Widowed (reference)||0.677||1.762||0.123–25.313|
|Highest level of education||Tertiary education (reference)||0.035*||0.377||0.152–0.935|
*, statistically significant P<0.05. Significance level was set at 95%.
Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents
Our study assessed the awareness and utilization of emergency response services among the Nigerian populace. Findings from this study are discussed structurally into socio-demographics, awareness of emergency response services, utilization of emergency response services, and experience using emergency response services as the associated factors related to the awareness among all the respondents. A total of 445 respondents filled out and returned the survey instrument and out of this, more than half of the respondents (53.7%) are young adults between the ages of 25–35 years. This age group represents part of the larger proportion of the national population in Nigeria according to the data released in 2021 (53.73%) (23). Our study shows a nearly similar ratio of female-to-male (50.8% and 49.2%) compared to another study that showed a major disparity between the male and the female distribution (4,16). Furthermore, over one-third of all the respondents are single.
Awareness and preparedness toward medical emergency response
With regards to the awareness of emergency response services among all respondents, about half of the respondents indicated awareness of medical emergency response services in Nigeria. This finding is in tandem with a previous study in India that reported a proportionately high level with over two-thirds of the respondents being aware of emergency response services among respondents (24). In terms of having the contact information required to activate an emergency response, more than half of our respondents did not have the contact information of the response service and this is also similar to a study that showed that about a quarter of their respondents were not aware of the contact information (24). In an effort to assess preparedness to act in an emergency, all survey respondents were asked whether they had received formal medical emergency response training. Just 36% of respondents indicated that they had received formal training, of which 63.6% had taken the training less than 2 years ago. The respondents’ financial preparedness for a medical emergency was assessed, only approximately one-quarter of all respondents confirmed having insurance as their primary payment plan, while over half (55.7%) indicated that they had no payment plan for medical emergencies. This figure is less than the one reported by the US Federal Emergency Management Agency in 2020 which showed only (68%) of the population had prepared an emergency plan (25). A plausible explanation for this finding is that more of the respondents from our study pay out-of-pocket for healthcare services and do not have emergency funds.
Experience and utilization of emergency response services
The experienced of road traffic crash were assessed, little below the three-quarter proportion of the respondents had either witnessed or been involved in a road traffic crash (71.1%), a proportion which is more than reports from a previous study which showed almost half of their respondents had experienced road traffic crash (49.7%) (26). Despite the high level of awareness of emergency response services among all respondents, less than one-quarter of those who had experienced road traffic crashes used the emergency response service (21.9%). In terms of the arrival time of the emergency response service, our study revealed a relatively close interval as they arrived in less than 30 min (25.7%). This is in contrast to the results of Kassaw and Asefa , who discovered that it takes between 1 and 2 min of response time in Ethiopia (27) and 3–5 min response time in Nigeria (16), and 25 min (28) average response times reported in Spain. These findings demonstrate that victims have an increased risk of dying before an ambulance arrives especially for individuals who will require cardiopulmonary resuscitation within the first four minutes after the incident at the majority of event locations.
Various factors were cited for not availing emergency response services. Less than half of the respondents mentioned unawareness of the emergency response service, followed by individuals lacking contact information for service providers and those who encountered delays in the response from emergency teams. Delay in response by the emergency response team has been a prominent contributory factor to the underutilization of emergency response services, this was also seen in a qualitative study conducted in Kenya which noted that long-distance travel between limited facilities and the crash scene, lack of after-business-hours ambulance services, and passersby better off evacuated victims, coupled with protocols such as police reports hinders the emergency response by the populace (29). Given that over two-thirds of our respondents who utilized emergency services would readily recommend them to others, this demonstrates the need to be intentional in creating awareness of emergency services in Nigeria.
Association between awareness of emergency response, socio-demographics, and other covariates
Our study found key associations between socio-demographic predictors and the awareness of emergency response among all respondents. Age group, sex, marital status, and the highest level of education were statistically significant with awareness of emergency response on the bivariate analysis. However, further analysis by stratification to test for the association using a binary logistic regression model for the outcome variables showed that only sex and the highest level of education were significant with the awareness of emergency response. Our study further highlighted that females were two times less likely to be aware of emergency response services compared to males (P=0.025, OR =0.626, 95% CI: 0.416–0.942). This result is in variance with a study conducted in Serbia which showed that females have an in-depth of awareness to emergency response (30). This disparity in findings could be a result of the difference in the study location or can be attributed to the male dominance in most emergency cases in Nigeria compared to Serbia. Our study found those with low education (primary and secondary) three times less likely aware of the emergency response (P=0.035, OR =0.377, 95% CI: 0.152–0.935). Our results showed a similarity with a study in Texas which showed that higher education is associated with awareness of emergency response (31).
The outcomes of our study highlight a significant lack of preparedness for emergencies among a substantial portion of our respondents. Despite awareness levels hovering just below half of the participants, it is clear that this awareness hasn’t translated into effective readiness for emergency situations. This is evident from the absence or limited nature of financial safeguards established to mitigate the potential financial burdens associated with emergencies. Additionally, a key discovery from our study is the limited utilization of emergency response services among individuals who have either experienced or witnessed road traffic accidents in Nigeria, despite the fact that awareness levels are relatively high. This trend can be attributed to various factors. One notable factor is the delay in response time, which compromises the efficacy of the emergency response efforts. Furthermore, individuals may lack information on how to reach out to the emergency response services, further hindering their utilization.
In summary, our study underscores that although awareness about emergency response services exists, the gap between awareness and effective preparedness remains a substantial challenge. This is further exemplified by the inadequacy of financial provisions for emergencies and the underutilization of available services, largely due to factors like delayed response times and insufficient knowledge about accessing timely assistance.
Limitations of the study
We found some limitations in our study and one of which is that our study applied an online mode of data collection among all respondents in Nigeria and this made it difficult to specify a target group for the study. Since our study was web-based, more of our study group were between 25–35 age group which may not necessarily represent the general population. Therefore, future web-based studies should consider this limitation when conducting their research. Also, findings from this study only assessed the utilization rate among the general populace who have either been victims or experienced road traffic crashes. It is pertinent for future studies to focus on emergency service workers as well. While our study has given an overview of the awareness and utilization which would form a strong baseline knowledge, it is imperative that a longitudinal follow-up study is conducted using physical data collection and also assess the availability of equipment and barriers to responding to road traffic crashes among emergency response workers.
Based on the results of our study, it is safe to conclude that while more of our respondents are aware of emergency response services in Nigeria, the utilization is still low owing to factors such as having no contact information of the response service as well as the delay in response time. In light of these findings, it is recommended that since road traffic crash is prevalent in Nigeria, government bodies and relevant agencies should implement regular awareness programs aimed at educating the public about emergency response services. Concurrently, efforts should be made to foster positive financial and behavioral attitudes towards preparedness. Furthermore, to address the issues of response time and accessibility, it is recommended that consistent training and monitoring initiatives be established. These efforts should be focused on enhancing the efficiency of emergency services’ response times. It is also crucial to ensure that the contact information for these services is widely accessible to the general population.
We wish to appreciate the Honorable Commissioner for Health and Human Services, Ministry of Health, Ekiti State, Nigeria, Dr. Oyebanji Filani, whose laser-focused comments and recommendations helped improved this research. Also, to Dr. Yewande Ogundeji (Director, Health Strategy and Delivery Foundation) who brought her methodological feedback and guidance in the early stage of this research. Our further appreciation goes to Dr. Olufemi Onasanya (Clinical Team Lead, Emergency Response Africa) and the entire Emergency Response Africa scouting team for their support throughout the course of this research.
Reporting Checklist: The authors have completed the STROBE reporting checklist. Available at https://jphe.amegroups.com/article/view/10.21037/jphe-23-31/rc
Data Sharing Statement: Available at https://jphe.amegroups.com/article/view/10.21037/jphe-23-31/dss
Peer Review File: Available at https://jphe.amegroups.com/article/view/10.21037/jphe-23-31/prf
Conflicts of Interest: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form (available at https://jphe.amegroups.com/article/view/10.21037/jphe-23-31/coif). The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
Ethical Statement: The authors are accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (as revised in 2013). Ethical clearance was gotten from the Ekiti State Ministry of Health Research Ethics Committee with approval number MOH/EKHREC/EA/P/42 prior to the data collection exercise. Additionally, participants’ consent was sought through a pre-filled form and they were assured of strict anonymity as their names or addresses were not collected nor extracted prior to the data collection. Also, they were assured of confidentiality as the data would only be used for research purposes.
Open Access Statement: This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits the non-commercial replication and distribution of the article with the strict proviso that no changes or edits are made and the original work is properly cited (including links to both the formal publication through the relevant DOI and the license). See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.
- World Health Organization. Global status report on road safety 2018 Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018:403. [cited 2023 Jun 5]. Available online: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/276462
- Aliyu AS, Umar NY, Sani FA, et al. Epidemiological Study On the Prevalence of Road Traffic Accident and Associated Risk Factors Among Drivers in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Am J Surg Clin Case Rep 2021. doi:
- Bucsuházy K, Matuchová E, Zůvala R, et al. Human factors contributing to the road traffic accident occurrence. Transp Res Procedia 2020;45:555-61. [Crossref]
- Honelgn A, Wuletaw T. Road traffic accident and associated factors among traumatized patients at the emergency department of University of Gondar Comprehensive Teaching and Referral Hospital. PAMJ Clin Med 2020;4:9. [Crossref]
- Mac PA, Kroeger A, Airiohuodion PE. Needs assessment of emergency medical and rescue services in Abuja/Nigeria and environs. BMC Emerg Med 2019;19:78. [Crossref] [PubMed]
- Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med 2006;3:e442. [Crossref] [PubMed]
- Parvareh M, Karimi A, Rezaei S, et al. Assessment and prediction of road accident injuries trend using time-series models in Kurdistan. Burns Trauma 2018;6:9. [Crossref] [PubMed]
- World Health Organization. WHO global status report on road safety 2013: supporting a decade of action. World Health Organization; 2013: ix, 303. [cited 2023 Jun 7]. Available online: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/78256
- United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Road Safety - Considerations in Support of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 2017; Available online: https://unctad.org/publication/road-safety-considerations-support-2030-agenda-sustainable-development
- Global Health Observatory. Estimated road traffic death rate (per 100 000 population) 2021 [cited 2023 Jun 7]. Available online: https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/indicators/indicator-details/GHO/estimated-road-traffic-death-rate-(per-100-000-population)
- Yunus S, Abdulkarim IA. Geospatial Analysis of Road Traffic Crashes and Emergency Response Optimization in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. In Review; 2022 Mar [cited 2022 Dec 3]. Available online: https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-1138619/v2
- World Health Organization. Global status report on road safety 2015 Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015:323. [cited 2023 Jun 6]. Available online: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/189242
- Okeke DC, Obasi O, Nwachukwu MU. Analysis of Road Transport Response to COVID-19 Pandemic in Nigeria and its Policy Implications. Transp Res Rec 2023;851-64. [Crossref] [PubMed]
- Adejugbagbe AM, Fatiregun AA, Rukewe A, et al. Epidemiology of road traffic crashes among long distance drivers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr Health Sci 2015;15:480-8. [Crossref] [PubMed]
- Afolabi OJ, Gbadamosi KT. Road Traffic Crashes in Nigeria: Causes and Consequences. Transport & Logistics The International Journal 2017;17:40-9.
- Salam S, Mehta A, Kim D, et al. Improving Lagos State emergency medical services by analysing road traffic accident data, response time, and efficient allocation of ambulances. Lancet Glob Health 2022;10:S26. [Crossref]
- Venkatraman C, Odusola AO, Malolan C, et al. Lagos state ambulance service: a performance evaluation. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2021;47:1591-8. [Crossref] [PubMed]
- Adeloye D. Prehospital trauma care systems: potential role toward reducing morbidities and mortalities from road traffic injuries in Nigeria. Prehosp Disaster Med 2012;27:536-42. [Crossref] [PubMed]
- Onyemaechi N, Ofoma UR. The Public Health Threat of Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: A Call to Action. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2016;6:199-204. [Crossref] [PubMed]
- Jasper AO, Jasper GC, Edah IO, et al. Pre-hospital care of road traffic accident victims in the Niger Delta: a private initiative and experience. Open Access Emerg Med 2019;11:51-6. [Crossref] [PubMed]
- Solagberu BA, Ofoegbu CK, Abdur-Rahman LO, et al. Pre-hospital care in Nigeria: a country without emergency medical services. Niger J Clin Pract 2009;12:29-33. [PubMed]
- Klinjun N, Kelly M, Praditsathaporn C, et al. Identification of Factors Affecting Road Traffic Injuries Incidence and Severity in Southern Thailand Based on Accident Investigation Reports. Sustainability 2021;13:12467. [Crossref]
- O’Neill A. Statista. [cited 2023 Jun 7]. Nigeria - Age structure 2021. Available online: https://www.statista.com/statistics/382296/age-structure-in-nigeria/
- Modi PD, Solanki R, Nagdev TS, et al. Public Awareness of the Emergency Medical Services in Maharashtra, India: A Questionnaire-based Survey. Cureus 2018;10:e3309. [Crossref] [PubMed]
- Federal Emergency Management Agency. FEMA Publishes Annual Preparedness Survey Trends Show Americans Becoming Better Prepared.pdf 2020. Available online: https://www.fema.gov/press-release/20210318/fema-publishes-annual-preparedness-survey-trends-show-americans-becoming
- Bezabih Y, Tesfaye B, Melaku B, et al. Pattern of Orthopedic Injuries Related to Road Traffic Accidents Among Patients Managed at the Emergency Department in Black Lion Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2021. Open Access Emerg Med 2022;14:347-54. [Crossref] [PubMed]
- Kassaw M, Asefa B. Road Network Analysis for Ambulance Transportation Service Using Geographical Information System (GIS): A Case of Arada Sub-City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Am J Traffic Transp Eng 2020;5:65. [Crossref]
- Sánchez-Mangas R, García-Ferrrer A, de Juan A, et al. The probability of death in road traffic accidents. How important is a quick medical response? Accid Anal Prev 2010;42:1048-56. [Crossref] [PubMed]
- Broccoli MC, Calvello EJ, Skog AP, et al. Perceptions of emergency care in Kenyan communities lacking access to formalised emergency medical systems: a qualitative study. BMJ Open 2015;5:e009208. [Crossref] [PubMed]
- Cvetković VM, Roder G, Öcal A, et al. The Role of Gender in Preparedness and Response Behaviors towards Flood Risk in Serbia. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018;15:2761. [Crossref] [PubMed]
- Ronik Ketankumar P, Sharareh K, Mostafa N. A Socioeconomic-Based Analysis of Disaster Preparedness, Awareness and Education. In: Proceedings of the Creative Construction e-Conference 2020 Online: Budapest University of Technology and Economics; 2020:76-84. [cited 2022 Dec 16]. Available online: https://repozitorium.omikk.bme.hu/handle/10890/13469?locale-attribute=en
Cite this article as: Akinreni T, Filani T, Asuni O, Owodunni F. Awareness and utilization of emergency response service to road traffic crashes in Nigeria: a cross-sectional study. J Public Health Emerg 2023;7:17.